I ran into this issue when trying to install Active Directory Certificate Services on Windows Server 2012
I thought it might be related that I only installed the Certification Authority and the Certification Authority Web Enrollment. So I went back and installed the web services as well.
But I still got the same 0x800070002 error.
I check out the Event Logs but didn’t find anything. So I check out the Server Manager > Dashboard.
I looked under AD CS (Active Directory Certificate Services) and I found this.
So I clicked the More link at the top and I get this dialog box.
I click Configure Active Directory Action and follow the Wizard
I click to configure the two Certification Authority and Certification Authority Web Enrollment
I click Next
I pick Enterprise CA but you could choose Standalone CA if that is what you wanted.
I walk thought the rest of the Wizard Next, Next, Finish!
Now when I use Launch the Certification Authority I works!